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Sphakia Survey: The Internet Edition

Help and hints for searching the site databases

Site Database

Basic Searching

In the Site Database there are three basic search options, each with pull-down menus:

1. The first option allows you to select an epoch or a period for your search. You could pull down the first menu 'Prehistoric phase: Choose a period' and select 'Prehistoric'. This will deliver a list of all sites in Sphakia with a Prehistoric phase. Or you could pull down the second menu (on the same line) 'Graeco-Roman phase: Choose a period' and select 'Classical'. Press the 'Begin Search button' at the top of the menu. This will deliver all sites with a Classical phase (both those dated solely to Classical and those with a span including Classical).

2. The second basic option allows you to choose sites in a particular Region. Pull down the menu 'Choose a region' and select, for example, '4'. You will then get a list of all sites in Region 4.

3. The third option is to choose sites with a particular function. Pull down the menu 'Choose a function' and select, for example, 'house'. This will generate a list of all sites which consist of a house (or houses). It is also possible to combine more than one of these basic searches. For example, you could select the period 'Classical', the Region '4' and the function 'house' to create a list of house sites in Region 4 which date to the classical period.

The results of your search will appear in a list (with basic information about the periods of each site). To go back from a list of sites to the main menu of this database, use the 'previous page' arrow in your web browser. If you want more information about a particular site, click on the site number in the left-hand column. The full record gives beside the name of the site its map coordinates. These consist of the square number of the British military 1: 50000 maps (the only ones fairly readily available when we started), plus a number indicating the number of the site within that square. For example, the first four sites of Region 1 all fall in square 97/26 and are therefore numbered 97/26.1, 97/26.2 etc. The full record also gives (when available) the dimensions of the site (in square metres): the precise area of a structure; the area of tumble; and the scatter of pottery.

The images of the site are given in thumbnail versions in the full record; if you want to enlarge one and see the caption, click on the thumbnail. To go back from the large image to the site record, click on 'previous page' at the foot of the screen.

Advanced Searching

In the Site Catalogue database there are five more advanced search options:

1. Site name (for which the selection button is set for 'Contains', so that it will find a string of letters from any point of the name). For example, if you only partially remember the name of the site 'Ag. Eustratigos', type in 'Eustr' and it will recover this site.

2. Site number (for which the selection button is set for 'Begins with'). All sites have numbers of the following format: 1.01 (where the first digit indicates the Region, and the second two digits the number of the site within the Region, from W to E). If you are interested in a site that is referred to in some prose or in the caption to an image of another site, searching on the site number is the simplest way to find that site.

3. Site elevation. The field will enable you, for example, to refine a search using the basic search fields. You could use it to find all sites of Prehistoric date over 800 metres: in 'Choose a period' select 'Prehistoric', and in 'Site elevation' type in 800. If you wanted to find all Prehistoric sites lower than 800 metres change the selection button setting to 'less than'.

4. Site Description. The field (which has data only for sites in Region 8, which are used for the Case Study) can be used to search for particular words (e.g. visibility; terrace; soil; rock; soil; steppe; garigue; maquis; sherd; pottery; stone).

5. Artefact comment. This field will enable you to search for summary comments on the types of material found at each site. The data is most complete for the Graeco-Roman material. The pull-down menu will guide you to particular items:
decorated table; plain table; fine non-table; ladle; food preparation; cooking; amphora; storage; beehive; tile; lamp; figurine;loomweight; bone; glass; chipped stone; ground stone; chert; obsidian; metal; coin; plaster; mortar.

Region 8 Ceramics database

Basic Searching

The search windows have been given as many pull-down menus as possible; these are indicated by buttons 'Choose...'. You can use one or more fields for each search. Once you have made your selection, press the 'Begin Search' button at the top of the search options. Before making another search, press the adjacent 'Clear form' button.

There are four basic fields:

1. Chronology. The seven periods are: Early Iron Age; Geometric; Archaic; Classical; Hellenistic; Roman; Late Roman. (For definitions of those periods see the definitions page). If you want to select pottery dated to a particular date (for example, Classical), in the Chronology field, use the pull-down menu to select 'Classical', and set the selection button to 'Equals'. If you want to select pottery which might be exactly Classical or might be more broadly dated (e.g. Archaic-Classical), use the pull-down menu to select 'Classical', and set the selection button to 'Contains'.

2. Fabric Family. If you want to find pottery of a particular fabric family, use the pull-down menu to select the particular fabric family from the following list: Calcareous; Chip; Fine Buff; Fine White; Fine Orange; Fine Yellow; Fine Pink; Fine Red; Med-Fine Buff; Med-Fine Grey; Med-Fine Orange; Med-Fine Pink; Med-Fine Powder; Med-Fine Red; Med-Fine Tan; Med-Fine White; Med-Fine Yellow; Mica; Mixed-Metamorphic; Phyllite; Sand; Claystone; Siltstone; Unknown.

3. Function. Most of the pottery in this database has been allocated to one of the following functional types: Decorated Table; Plain Table; Fine Non-Table; Ladles; Food Preparation; Food Cooking; Storage; Transport; Tile; Building Material/Kiln; Lamps; Beehive; Loomweight; Figurine. Use the pull-down menu to select a particular function.

4. Shape. All the pottery in this database has been described with one of following terms:
Amphora; Amphora / Jar;
Basin; Basin / Krater; Beaker; Beehive; Beehive, Extension Tube; Bowl; Bowl, Cylindrical; Bowl, Hemispherical; Bowl, Pedestal; Bowl / Basin; Bowl / Jug; Bowl / Krater; Bowl / Mug; Bowl / Plate; Brazier;
Closed vessel; Closed vessel, large; Closed vessel, small; Cooking pot; Cup; Cup, Cylindrical; Cup, Kommos; Cup, One-handled; Cup, Tulip; Cup / Bowl; Cup / Ladle;
Dish; Dish, flat-based; Dish, large; Dish, shallow (saucer); Dish / Basin; Dish / Bowl; Dish / Bowl, large;
Figurine; Frying pan;
Jar; Jar, large; Jar, large / Pithos; Jar / Jug; Jug; Jug, Trefoil; Jug, Tulip; Jug / Mug; Kantharos; Kiln; Krater; Kylix;
Ladle; Lamp; Lamp, multiple-nozzle; Lekane; Lid; Lid, large; Lid, steep; Loomweight; Loomweight, discoid;
Mortarium; Mug;
Oinochoe; Open Vessel; Open Vessel, large; Open Vessel, small;
Pithos; Plate; Plate, large; Pyxis;
Skyphos;
Tile;
Unguentarium; Unknown.

Use the pull-down menu to select a particular shape. If you use the selection button setting 'Equals', 'Bowl' will select only those object described precisely as 'Bowl'. If you change the selection button setting to 'Contains', 'Bowl' will select both 'Bowl' and also 'Bowl, Cylindrical'; 'Bowl, Hemispherical'; 'Bowl, Pedestal'; 'Bowl / Basin'; 'Bowl / Jug'; 'Bowl / Krater'; 'Bowl / Mug'; 'Bowl / Plate'.

You can use more than one of these four fields for a single search. For example, you could select 'Classical' within Chronology (setting the selection button to 'Contains') and 'Bowl' within Shape to give a list of all bowls whose date either is exactly Classical or includes the Classical period.

The resulting list is sorted (by default) in order of site. But it is also possible to sort the results by any one of the four basic fields using the button 'Choose field to sort by' at the head of the search options. If you do the search for Classical bowls and set 'Choose field to sort by' to 'Chronology', the resulting list will be sorted by date: bowls dated Archaic-Classical appearing before bowls dated simply to Classical.

A search will result in a summary list of objects. If you want more information about any object, click on the Site number in the left-hand column. This will lead you to the full record for that object. If there is a photograph or drawing of the object, that will appear in thumbnail form; if you want to enlarge it and see the caption, click on the thumbnail. If you want to go from the full record of an object to the full record of the site where it was found, click on the Site name.

The full record gives some extra information not available in the searchable fields: Number of items; Weight; MPD, i.e. Maximum Preserved Dimensions; Diameter (of original object); Part section, i.e. the thickness of the sherd. The Catalogue Entry at the end is a prose version of all the information on the sherd.

Advanced Searching

There are eleven fields for more advanced searching. All but the first have pull-down menus.

1. Site number. You can use this to select all the pottery from a particular site (e.g. 8.23).

2. Amphora type. The pull-down menu will select a particular amphora type from the following list:
Chian; Coan style; Corinthian A; Cretan Roman; Cretan Roman, type 1; Cretan Roman, type 2; East Aegean; Gaza; Globular; Late Roman 1; Late Roman 2; North African; Rhodian; Samian.
If you select 'Cretan Roman' the search will include those described more specifically as 'Cretan Roman, type 1' and 'Cretan Roman, type 2'.

3. Core colour. You can use this to select sherds whose core has a particular colour from the following list: black; blue; brown; buff; cream; green; grey; ochre; olive; orange; pink; red; tan; yellow. If the selection button is set to 'Contains', 'Orange' will select both 'Orange' and 'Orange Red' etc.
The full record for many objects includes in the 'Catalogue Entry' at the end the Munsell table entries for surface and core colours. These are a commonly used way of avoiding much of the imprecision in ordinary colour terms like 'red' or 'orange'.

4. Fine ware type. The pull-down menu enables you to select from the following list: African Red Slip; Black Gloss; Çandarli; Cypriot Red Slip; Eastern Sigillata A; Eastern Sigillata B; Italian Terra Sigillata; Phocaean Red Slip; Red Gloss.

5. Hardness. The overall hardness of the sherd can be investigated by means of the following pull-down menu: soft; medium soft; medium; medium hard; hard.

6. Inclusion Dominant. Those sherds which have been examined in details also have information about their geological and other components. The pull-down menu has the following entries: black glassy mineral; calcite; chaff; chert; claystone; feldspar; ferrous; ferrous, red; granodiorite; gravel; mica; mica, gold; mica, silver; none; phyllite; quartz; quartz feldspar; quartz, glassy; quartz, milky; sand; sand, glitter; sandstone, white; siltstone; siltstone, silver blue spotted; soft; soft red; soft white; sponge spicules; unknown.
The field shows only the dominant inclusion, and in many cases there are also other inclusions.
If the selection button is set to 'Contains', 'mica' (for example) will also find 'mica, gold' and 'mica, silver'.

7. Origin. Many of the sherds in the database are known to come from a particular place or area. The pull-down menu has the following entries: Cretan; Cretan, Sphakia; Cretan, West; Import; Import, Aegean; Import, Aegean North; Import, Attic; Import, East Mediterranean; Import, Italy; Import, North Africa; Import, Peloponnese.
If the selection button is set to 'Contains', 'Import' will find all the imported sherds ('Import, Aegean', 'Import, Aegean North' etc). Similarly, 'Cretan' will also find 'Cretan, Sphakia' and 'Cretan, West'.

8. Part. This field, which has a pull-down menu, describes the particular part of the vessel:
band; base; base, flat; base, ring; base, false ring; base, pedestal; base / rim; body sherd; body sherd near base; body sherd near rim; body sherd w handle spring;
edge;
foot; fragment; full profile;
handle; handle spring; handle w wall; handle, horizontal; handle, lug; handle, strap;
lid; lid w lifting device; lid w rim; lining;
mouth;
neck; neck and shoulder; neck w handle; nozzle;
rim; rim w handle; rim w neck; rim w nozzle; rim w wall and base; rotela;
shoulder; stem;
toe;
unknown.
If the selection button is changed to 'Contains', 'base' will find all the sub-categories of base: 'base, flat'; 'base, ring'; 'base, false ring'; 'base, pedestal'; 'base / rim.'

9. Sherd Condition. Sherds (especially those found on the surface) survive in very varying conditions. The pull-down menu allows the following terms to be searched: very worn; worn; surfaces gone; fresh; burned; waster. 'Burned' usually means that the sherd was burned in antiquity (for example, because it was used for cooking). A 'waster' is a vessel damaged in production (often because it was overfired).

10. Surface colour. The colour of the surface of the sherd is given when possible; in some cases it differs from that of the core. The following terms are used in the pull-down menu: black; blue; brown; buff; cream; green; grey; ochre; orange; pink; red; tan; yellow.
If the selection button is changed to 'Equals', a search on 'red' will find only 'red'. Otherwise it will find both 'red' and 'red orange' etc.
The full record for many objects includes in the 'Catalogue Entry' at the end the Munsell table entries for surface and core colours. These are a commonly used way of avoiding much of the imprecision in ordinary colour terms like 'red' or 'orange'.

11. Texture. Vessels differ widely in their general texture (often because of their function). The pull-down menu has the following items: fine; medium fine; medium; medium coarse; coarse; very coarse.

 

Region 8 Small finds database

Basic Searching

The basic search windows have all been given pull-down menus; these are indicated by buttons 'Choose...'. You can use one or more fields for each search. Once you have made your selection, press the 'Begin Search' button at the top of the search options. Before making another search, press the adjacent 'Clear form' button.

There are three basic fields:

1. Material. This field allows you to search for objects of a particular type (e.g. bone, glass or stone). The pull-down menu has the following entries: bone; charcoal; glass; metal; metal, bronze; metal, iron; mortar / plaster; geological; shell; stone; stone, chert; stone, obsidian.
If you change the selection button to 'Contains', 'stone' will find not only 'stone', but also 'stone, chert' and 'stone, obsidian'.

2. Object. This field gives a more precise description of the object. The pull-down menu offers the following choices: Blade, retouched; Blade, unretouched; Bowl; Building material; Cobble, worked; Core; Cranium; Debris; Flake, retouched; Flake, unretouched; Goblet; Grindstone; Hinge; Long Bone; Metatarsal; Nail; Pebble, worked; Pestle; Quern; Shell; Stone, unworked; Stone, worked; Strike stone; Tooth; Unguentarium; Unknown; Vertebra; Whetstone.

3. Period. The menu allows you to search for the following periods: Geometric; Archaic; Classical; Hellenistic; Roman; Late Roman. Not all the objects in this database are known to be ancient in date. In such cases they appear without a date.

You can use more than one of these four fields for a single search. For example, you could select 'Roman' within Period (setting the selection button to 'Contains') and 'Mortar' within Material to give a list of all mortar which is either Roman in date or which might be Roman (e.g. Roman-Late Roman).

The resulting list is sorted (by default) in order of site. But it is also possible to sort the results by any one of the three basic fields using the button 'Choose field to sort by' at the head of the search options. If you do the search for Roman mortar and set 'Choose field to sort by' to 'Period', the resulting list will be sorted by date: mortar dated Roman appearing before mortar dated more broadly to Roman-Late Roman.

A search will result in a summary list of objects. If you want more information about any object, click on the Site number in the left-hand column. This will lead you to the full record for that object. If there is a photograph of the object, that will appear in thumbnail form; if you want to enlarge it and see the caption, click on the thumbnail. If you want to go from the full record of an object to the full record of the site where it was found, click on the Site name.

Advanced Searching

1. Site number. This field allows you to select all the small finds from a particular site. If you type in 8.61, you will get all the records for the Agiasmatsi cave. If you then go to the button 'Choose field to sort by' at the head of the search options, you can sort these records by material.

2. Small Finds ID. This option will let you get straight back to a particular record, provided that you have a note of the objects Small Finds ID.

3. Catalogue Entry. This field allows a free search on the text entry describing the object.

   
 

   © The Sphakia Survey: Internet Edition, University of Oxford 2000
    Designed and Developed by ACDT at University of Oxford
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